East Coast Discovery Pass can get on and off as many times as you like on the east coast trains between Melbourne and Cairns using the Queensland Rail and NSW Countrylink services.
Rail Explorer Pass, Trans Aus, Aus Reef and Outback, and Ausrail Pass are four passes that all include Great Southern Railways (GSR) services and optionally NSW Countrylink and Queensland Rail that are available to overseas travellers only. Remember that NSW Countrylink operate the XPT services from Sydney to Melbourne, so passes that include NSW Countrylink can also be used on that service.
Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Wollongong and Newcastle have train and bus services integrated into the city public transport, with trams also running in Melbourne and Adelaide, and ferries in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. The remaining capital cities have bus services only. See those city guides articles for public transport details.
The islands of the Barrier Reef have some scheduled services, and there are a few cruises that cross the top of Australia as well. The Spirit of Tasmania is the only long distance ferry route connects Tasmania to the mainland and runs between Melbourne and Devonport. Sealink connects Kangaroo Island. Sea SA offers a short cut across the Spencer Gulf between Adelaide and the Eyre Peninsula, running daily car ferry services.
There are three different categories of Australian roads: federal highways, state highways and local roads. Victoria is the state with the highest density of arterial roads in Australia. Important urban and inter-regional routes not covered by the National Highway or National Route systems are marked under the State Route system. They can be recognised by blue shield markers. Metroad route numbers were assigned to the key navigational corridors, along ring and radial routes, and marked by distinctive hexagonal shields. Most Metroads have been completely or partially replaced with alphanumeric routes in Brisbane, and they have been fully replaced in Sydney. Alphanumeric routes have been introduced in most states and territories in Australia, partially or completely replacing the previous systems.
While major highways are well serviced, anyone leaving sealed (paved) roads in inland Australia is advised to take advice from local authorities, check weather and road conditions, carry sufficient spare fuel, spare parts, spare tyres, matches, food and water. Some remote roads might see one car per month or less.
Australia drives on the left. Generally, overseas licenses are valid for driving in Australia for three months after arrival. If the licence is not in English an International Driving Permit (IDP) is required in addition to your licence.
Wildlife is not usually an issue in major urban areas, but still take extra care when driving through areas with vegetation close to the road and during dawn and dusk when wildlife is most active, such as kangaroos.